Surprises

I always enjoy the surprise and challenge of genealogy discoveries – that’s why this hunt is so addictive and the rewards so sweet. So this week’s 52 ancestors theme of ‘surprise’ kind of left me thinking thusly in general, broad strokes and took me a while to narrow down to someone specific. [as noted by my Friday, not Wednesday posting]

Something that my uncle and I discussed last week as we were reviewing the Swedish genetic percentages from his latest dna testing, was if his grandfather Carl Severin Hallberg was not a Hallberg at all. He related stories of Carl and his younger brother Sigfrid not being liked by their father Hans Peter Hallberg. Now Hans Peter could have just been like that, but I’ve found there’s always a grain of truth in a family story, especially if it is investigated thoroughly.

Carl Severin Hallberg, author’s collection

Carl Severin was born 26 Sep 1882 to Lina Svensdatter in Ränneslöv, Halland, Sweden. It is in the southwest part of Sweden, close to the sea which separates Sweden from Denmark. It came as a surprise to me to find that Carl Severin was listed as illegitimate (oäkta) and his mother listed as unmarried (piga and ej gift is marked) on his birth recording.

Swedish Church Records Arkivdigital via Ancestry.com

There is also some tantalizing info about her address, and some comments to the far right that I haven’t quite figured out. [there is a great facebook genealogy page community that provides translations, though]

Lina’s second son Nels Sigfred was born 13 Oct 1885. His birth recording shows he was also ‘oäkta ‘ and his mother was ‘ej gift’. Her last name was listed as Svensson instead of Svensdatter, which is interesting.

Lina was listed as fästekvinna (fiance) of Hans Peter Svensson on the ‘utflynning’ (outgoing) register [I love the Swedish custom of recording people’s moves] from 29 Oct 1885, just 2 weeks after her second son was born. Västra Karup was listed as their destination, which is 25 km west of Ränneslöv towards the sea.

Lina marries Hans Peter Svensson (common last name is a surprise too) 16 Nov 1885, in Torekov, a beach village about 5km from Västra Karup . He was listed as a farmhand and she a maid (piga). It was the first marriage for both and they were also listed as being from Ränneslöv. What brought them to this place to marry?

Then Lina Svensson immigrated to ‘Amerika’ 25 Feb 1887 from Skummeslöv, which is up the coast a little bit from Torekov. She was listed as hustru (a wife) and her sons Carl Severin Svensson and Nils Sigfrid Svensson were traveling with her. Hans Peter Svensson followed them on 17 May 1886. The family became known as ‘Hallberg’ in America – which they probably took from their regional name ‘Halland’.

Halland/Skane region of SW Sweden via The New York Times

So it has been verified that my great grandfather as well as his brother were born of an unwed mother. But what is unknown is if Hans Peter Svensson Hallberg was their father or not. That Svensson name being the same for the maiden name of Lina kind of throws a kink in the chain because it makes it harder to track other names that might have been associated with her children. Lina did have three children together with Hans Peter and raised all five of them as one family. Maybe some new surprise will surface down the line that will provide some more information about this family lore.

This post is part of Amy Johnson Crow’s 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge, a year-long blogging project focusing on family history stories. This week’s prompt is “surprises.”

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Generational Studies

After 23 years, I’ve been strongly considering going back to school. I think it would enhance my work, my employment possibilities, my personal growth. I would choose Library and Information Sciences as that most closely corresponds to my current and chosen future work path. So imagine my surprise as I was talking to my mother this morning about this and she remembered her mother (Wava) mentioning that she wanted to attend University of Wisconsin for Library Studies but the family couldn’t afford the train ticket for her to visit and/or enroll. How pleased I was to hear our common interest and curious about how her path changed!

My maternal grandmother, Wava Hallberg, ca 1927; author’s collection

My grandmother was born in Minneapolis and moved with her parents (she was an only child like me too) to the Guthrie area of Northern Minnesota where her parents bought an 80-acre farm. She was enrolled in the local four room school, where she attended up until 10th grade. She then took the train from Guthrie to Bemidji (20 miles one way) to attend her last two years, working for room and board in town and coming back to the farm on the weekends. She graduated in 1927. [Mary Welsh Hemingway (author’s fourth wife) and Bronco Nagurski (football player and wrestler) were in her class]

So she ended up attending Bemidji State Teachers College for one year before teaching in rural schools for five years. She then said [in her memories, transcribed below] that she went back to college – 1932ish. Was this when she wanted to go to University of Wisconsin for Library Studies or was it directly after High School? Why Wisconsin and not the closer University of Minnesota in Minneapolis? (where she was born and still had relatives) University of Wisconsin had just opened their School of Education at Madison as a graduate program for teachers to continue their training – a balance between theory and practice which was novel at the time. But because many universities were increasing their tuition to offset the budget crunch of the Great Depression, perhaps Wava’s dream was too far out of reach. Especially if they couldn’t even afford the train ticket.

Wava’s two cousins from Canada, Wilbert and James Gregson, came to live with them after her father’s sister died in 1921 and so I can imagine that impacted the family finances and dynamics as well. In the 1930 census, about the time that Wava was thinking of college but was out teaching in the rural districts (and boarding with families), her father was renting a farm and had a wife and two teenaged boys to support. I wonder how much of her income she sent back home?

Sometimes I forget how fortunate I am to have choices and how much poverty can change the course of people’s lives for generations to come.

Great shout of thanks to my mother for providing a heretofore-undiscovered-by-me oral history that my grandmother wrote for the “Guthrie Odds and Ends” spiral bound book published in 1987. It is solid gold and in the interest of documentation, I will transcribe it below.

p.s. My mother doesn’t remember that her mother went back to college, but took some continuing education and summer school classes

Mr and Mrs Orville Lindstrom, 1944; author’s collection
Wava Hallberg Lindstrom, ca 1985; author’s collection

“My parents, Esther and Carl Hallberg came to Guthrie from Minneapolis in the spring of 1918.

Certainly enjoyed the freedom of our 80 acre farm. I ran, climbed trees and waded in the creek.

I attended Guthrie Consolidated School from 8th grade through second year of high. Lucky I came with a fair knowledge of reading and mathematics because I could only think and do something funny.

Did enjoy being in 3 act plays during our summer months – worked hard but fun, too. Gave our program and plays in the old Woodman Hall. It’s still in use.

My first job was picking potatoes for $1.00 a day. I bought a red hat that fall. Talking about potatoes, we would knock potato bugs in a can of kerosine. Had a potato warehouse in Guthrie.

Babe Waldon and Art took me to my first circus in Guthrie.

My cousins (like brothers) came to live with us when they were four and five years old.

Some of my best friends were Ruth Fuller, Bessie Moses, Stella Marin, Fred Balk, Dell Wilson and Orville Lindstrom, later Florence Wright and Ebba Peterson.

Then it came time to go to Bemidji High, no buses to us. We had to work for board and room or got a small room with a kerosene stove for cooking. I brought a lot of food from home every weekend. Did get to Bemidji on the M and I train. Graduated from High School in 1926. Mary Hemingway and Bronco Nagurski were in my class. After High School went to Bemidji State to take a one year rural course. Taught five years before going back to college. My first school was Cedar Park north of Blackduck Lake. Only the cement steps are remaining today. Next school was Shooks, East Inez and finally the last rural school was south of Akeley. Mr. J.C. McGhee was superintendent. He would visit the school and fall asleep until I’d wake him up when the children were gone. I loved these rural people and children were so good. Fine people to help and encourage their children.

I taught in International Falls, Cass Lake, Nary and the last school was J.W. Smith. Then I was 65 years old so must resign.

Had loved Orville Lindstrom since elementary school days. We would go steady and then part, but World War II got us permanently settled. Jan 13, 1944 Orville and I were married before he went to Europe. He was wounded in Normandy Invasion. After Orville’s discharge, we settled on Walters-Hallberg farm. Then Linnea Muriel Lillquist came in 1946. Barbara Jean Christenson came in 1947 and Orville, Junior in 1951. We have three granddaughters, Kristin Lillquist, Cara Christenson, and Amy Lillquist.

Orville never felt well since his wounds in St. Suzanne. He died March 11, 1979. My Dad died in 1954 and mother in 1959.

Had fun with the children but should have married earlier so we could have enjoyed them more.

We’ve seen a lot of advances – vaccination for many diseases, and electricity for lights, heat and bathrooms. The telephone was comforting on the farm. Know we’ll advance some more.

After Orville’s death, I moved to an apartment in Bemidji. I moved one more time and have an apartment at Red Pines Estates.

I want to thank my children, friends, Lindstrom family, Wilbert and Esther Gregson for being so good to me.

This post is part of Amy Johnson Crow’s 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge, a year-long blogging project focusing on family history stories. This week’s prompt is “at the library.”

Cara Jensen is owner of Sherlock Homes historical consulting & genealogy, where she provides expert services on cultural preservation and ancestral discovery.

Arrière Grand-Mère

I’ve always wanted to learn more about my French side. If there was a time machine and I could hitch a ride, one of my first stops would be to meet my great grandmother, Esther Parris Hallberg, the youngest daughter of French Canadian immigrants Joseph Parris and Delia Boivin.

Esther Parris ca 1910; author’s collection

I try to glean bits of mannerism and culture through the stories that my mother tells of her Grandma Hallberg. How she often cried when the children left for school in the mornings, how she made special birthday meals for each grandchild and didn’t allow their siblings to intrude on their special time (mom said her little brother would stand at the screen door and mope but not be allowed inside). When her sisters would visit, they would speak French and drink pony beers and sometimes loudly argue and be dramatic – Oh là là!!

Latrobe Bulletin 2 Sep 1966; newspapers.com

Unfortunately, I don’t have many pictures of her or her side of the family to examine, so I pour over details of face shapes and clothing in an attempt to learn via osmosis. Perhaps I got my height from her side as I am the same height as my grandmother (5’3″) and she looks to be taller than her mother Esther. Perhaps that’s where I got my curly hair also? My mother says we have her silly sense of humor and her penchant for laughter. Whenever emotion or tears penetrate our staid Scandinavian exterior, we say, “there’s that French side…”.

My grandmother Wava Mary with her parents Esther Parris and Carl Hallberg (a Swede); author’s collection

Since I don’t have a time machine, I will have to rely on these anecdotes and pictures to tell her story. I am trying to find and collect Parris descendants and have reconnected slowly but steadily with cousins who will hopefully add their anecdotes and pictures so that the persona of the Parris family will be honored and remembered for our next generations. C’est la vie!

This post is part of Amy Johnson Crow’s 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge, a year-long blogging project focusing on family history stories. This week’s prompt is “I’d like to meet.”

Cara Jensen is owner of Sherlock Homes historical consulting & genealogy, where she provides expert services on cultural preservation and ancestral discovery.

What’s in a Name?

Gullak Christenson ca 1860; personal collection

My paternal 2nd great grandfather was named Gullak. He was named for his maternal grandfather but the name was not passed down any further. A quick google search for ‘Gullak’ shows a sites for a personal finance app on the first three pages and genealogy pages for two people named Gullak on page four. Not much.

When I search the Norwegian National Archives for “Gullak” in the 1865 census, it results in 174 hits. Hmm. That is an unusual name then even for Norway. When I open the search up for variants, the results include Gulak, Gulek, Gullik, Gullek, in addition to Gullak.

Looking in my Norwegian English Dictionary by Einar Haugen (lovely gift from my Norsk bokklub, tusen takk), the word “gul” is “yellow” or “gold”. So “gullfisk” is “goldfish”, “gullboste” is “dandelion” and “gullgutt” is “apple of the parent’s eye, mother’s darling boy”. Also interesting and perhaps relevant is that Gulen is the Old Norse term for the Sogn region of Norway – the area where my Gullak lived.

The Nordic Name database shows that Gullak is a derivative of the Old Norse Guðleikr or a combination of Gud – “good” and Leik – “game, play, amusement”. It also mentions that the name has become a vocabulary word in Norwegian in the form of gaulik = ‘fool, joker, jester’. Perhaps my forebearer was a bit of a prankster?

I’ve always wondered about this name – it certainly is unusual and I’m glad to have dug in to a bit of the history about it. Now I’m going to go try to find any more Gullaks in my tree!!

This post is part of Amy Johnson Crow’s 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge, a year-long blogging project focusing on family history stories. This week’s prompt is “unusual name”.

Cara Jensen is owner of Sherlock Homes historical consulting & genealogy, where she provides expert services on cultural preservation and ancestral discovery.

Loss of Faith

The depth and breadth of the ties to Mormonism in my mother’s family have remained a constant intrigue.  I’ve posted before on the connections to Joseph Smith in Ohio and the family’s migration patterns following splinter sects to different states after his death but always have wondered where and when the faith ended in my direct descendancy.  My mother certainly doesn’t remember her grandparents practicing and I can’t even find a LDS or similar church in their rural Minnesota community.   So it would have to be prior to their move from Iowa to Minnesota in 1913.

To me, the easiest thing to start with is looking at marriage records.  Was the couple married by a JP or someone of a particular faith.  Let’s start with the children of LaMay and Marian Syphers Fuller, residing in Otho, Webster County Iowa:

Fuller kids
Carrie, Irene, David, Alta and Fern Fuller ca. 1903?; author’s collection

Alta Alma Fuller (my ggrandma) was married 19 Feb 1904 to Oscar Lindstrom by Francis Fawkes, pastor of the Otho-Kalo Congregational church, with witnesses Helen Nor[d]strom (groom’s niece) and Guy Fuller (bride’s uncle).

Florence Fern Fuller was married 2 Nov 1909 to Clarence Kingsley by SM Magowan, JP in Ft Dodge.

David Harry Fuller was married 21 May 1907 to Elizabeth Heatherington by SM Magowan, JP in Ft Dodge.

Carrie Leona Fuller was married 6 Jan 1906 to Arthur Nims by James Martin, JP in Ft Dodge.

Irene Estelle Fuller married Alfred Kallstrom in 1914, in Hubbard County Minnesota – no marriage license found yet.

Alright, let’s go back to the previous Fuller generation – siblings of LaMay – to look for marriages made by a minister:.  They were the family that I suspect followed the Mormon/LDS schisms and moved quite a bit from New York to Ohio to Wisconsin to Illinois to Iowa.

Almira Fuller was married on 1 Jan 1857 to Adam Palm in Shabonna Illinois – no marriage license found yet.

Homer Fuller was married on 23 Jun 1874 to Luella Williams in Webster County Iowa – no marriage license found yet.

Frank Forcet Fuller was married on 15 Sep 1875 to Laura Wright in Webster County Iowa – no marriage license found yet.

Frances Fuller was married on 16 Jul 1874 to Frank Jacques in Webster County Iowa – no marriage license found yet.

La May Freemont Fuller was married on 23 Dec 1883 to Marian Syphers in Scranton Iowa – no marriage license found yet.

Lew Guy Fuller was married on 13 Mar 1913 to Adella May Parsons in Chickasaw County Iowa by Burton Marsh, New Hampton Congregational Church minister.

So far there are many marriages by JPs and 2 by Congregational ministers.  Nothing related to Mormon or LDS.  And a whole lot of no records. Sigh. Guess I will have to wait until I can find those Fuller marriage licenses to know for sure but I suspect that my Iowa sect of Fullers stopped practicing after they left Shabonna Illinois (there was a Mormon sect there that I’ve written about),  Perhaps I should search the LDS site for marriage records – that will have to be my challenge for next time!

This post is part of Amy Johnson Crow’s 52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks Challenge, a year-long blogging project focusing on family history stories. This week’s prompt is “challenge.”

Cara Jensen is owner of Sherlock Homes historical consulting & genealogy, where she provides expert services on cultural preservation and ancestral discovery. 

Clothing Clues from Family Pictures

So I have a wall of family pictures directly behind my desk – I like to think that my ancestors are smiling and encouraging me at my work 🙂  Pictures are such an interesting snapshot in time – capturing the social, economic, and personality status of the subjects.    The picture that I leveled my gaze at this morning was a portrait of my great grandparents, Christen and Agnethe Christenson with their young daughters Clara and Cora.

ChristenAgnetheClaraCoraChristenson
Christen, Agnethe, Clara and Cora Christenson ca 1908; author’s collection

]I wanted a large picture of them so you could see the details that tell a story about their life at this snapshot in time]

The Christensons lived in Winger, Minnesota when this picture was taken.  Agnethe Rindahl immigrated from the Lillehammer region of Norway when she was 10 years old and Chris was born in Wisconsin to Norwegian immigrant parents.  Their age at marriage seems unusual for the time – Agnethe was 29 – listed as “servant” in the 1895 and 1900 census, and Chris was 31 – a shopkeeper/postmaster in Winger.  They were living with their parents and other siblings so perhaps it wasn’t so unusual during that time to have to combine incomes for economic stability?  After their marriage in 1903, they set up a homestead in nearby Garden township, probably farming wheat, barley, oats, sugar beets, or potatoes – the regional crops.  Clara was born in June 1904 and Cora in October 1906.

Going back to the picture, zooming in on the 3 white circles on Agnethe’s bodice – they are beautiful pieces of lace or tatting.  There is also lace around her neck.  These perhaps were part of her wedding trousseau or taken from another dress?  She also has a long necklace that has lighter beads (pearls?) tight around her neck and the long section looks like cording with larger beads every 12 inches.  Is it tied down by her lap?  It fades out there. She is also pregnant with their first son Gilbert – a loose waist is evident compared to the cinched waist styles of the times.  Her hair looks it is curled on each side of her head and daughter Clara’s hair seems to be crimped or curled also.  Curling irons and hair crimpers were available from the Sears & Roebuck catalog in 1900 for around 50 cents (plus postage).

The girls also have beautiful crocheted lace on their dresses.  Baby Cora has a lace collar with matching trim around her cuffs and dress with a thicker lace underskirt.  Perhaps this is her christening dress?  Does she have a pearl-ish pin at her throat?  Clara looks like she is wearing a short pearl necklace on top of her scalloped collar.  She also has a ring on her middle finger and a ribbon in her hair.  Perhaps the doll came from her father’s shop or was handed down from her mother.  It has blonde hair, a decorative sash, sleep eyes (eyes that opened and closed) and some sort of blanket or coat that is fuzzed around the the head.  I don’t know much about antique bisque dolls, so would appreciate any info about the cost or style from that era.

Chris looks like he is wearing a heavy woolen high button 3 piece suit with a rounded collar shirt and striped tie – dapper.  No pocket watch or rings that I can see.

So it is interesting and unexpected to see that my Minnesota farm family has a bit of luxury what with the porcelain doll, pearls, lace and crimped hair.  Marrying at a later age and being a storekeeper before farming allowed them some extras that reflected their status in the community.  Have you ever used the clothing and accessories in your family pictures as clues to their lifestyle and personality?  Now I want to go look at some more pictures!

 

 

Joyeux Noël

If there were traditions to be observed when I was growing up, they were mostly Scandinavian.  Which makes sense as I am roughly 75% Scandinavian.  The other half of my 25% is French Canadian and unfortunately we don’t have much information on that side of the family or keep in touch with cousins as we should (I’m trying to remedy that). Now that we are in the merry season of Yule, I wonder how the French Canadian side of the family celebrated and what kind of traditions they may have had.

La bûche de Noël

A delicious sponge rolled with jam or cream or chocolate filling, decorated to look like a traditional Yule log.  I tried to make one once complete with meringue mushrooms and it did taste good…

Le réveillon

Christmas Eve was the time for the réveillon – a nightlong dinner and dancing party traditionally held after Catholic midnight mass . The word itself comes from the verb réveiller, which means “to wake up”. People would sleep during the day to be fresh and ready to feast and frolic on Christmas Eve. The réveillon usually was the biggest feast of the year – a large banquet where traditional dishes abounded –  tourtière (a uniquely French-Canadian meat pie), ragoût de patte (pig’s feet stew), ragoût de boulettes (meatball stew), turkey, vegetables, pea soup, meat pâté, roasted chestnuts, maple cream pie, etc etc. This is also where la bûche de Noël would be served.  Gifts were opened after the feast and party.

I’m sure there were many small things, like in every family, that my French Canadian side did out of tradition.  I wish I had more pictures of that side, or knew more stories, or had some relics from them.  I guess I could step up my game and try some of this holiday dishes (maybe my second bûche de Noël would be prettier) in order to feel closer to my francophone family.

Parris family
The Joseph Parris family, ca 1890; the only picture in the author’s collection

Cara Jensen is owner of Sherlock Homes historical consulting & genealogy, where she provides expert services on cultural preservation and ancestral discovery. She is a member of the National Genealogical Society, National Council on Public History, and American Association for State and Local History. You can find Cara on Twitter @cjjens

The Recipe Box

I’m sure many of you have a collection of family recipes.  I think our tastes are a blend of genetic, cultural,  and regional factors – I know some of my favorite recipes have been added since we’ve moved ‘south’ to St Louis – flavors and tastes that I hadn’t been exposed to as a child.   But have you stopped to recognize and document the stories behind the recipes?  Who gave this recipe to you and how did they come across it?  Was it something they grew up with or something they discovered?  I was reminded of this as I asked my Aunt Linnea for her pecan pie recipe this morning.  She is also a Southern transplant, so I’m thinking her recipe came from her time in South Carolina, not from her childhood in Minnesota. (I also have her chex mix recipe 🙂 )

Nea and David 2016
Aunt Nea; author’s collection

I  have my French Canadian great grandmother’s recipe for cream cake, which my  mother remembers eating for her birthday.  I’ve tried making it several times, but I think recipes that are generations older suffer because our ingredients are different now.  The cake I made was dry, but maybe that’s just how it was? (or I just need to become a better baker – lol)  My cousin asked for the recipe and has had it for her birthday too.

Esther Parris
Great grandmother Esther Parris ca 1910; author’s collection

image6
1st attempt at cream cake; author’s collection

Amy and Abigail and creamcake
Cousins Amy & Abigail and their cream cake; author’s collection

I have my neighbor’s cheese ball recipe, which she made for my husband every time we got together for dinner – he makes and eats it now in her memory.  I have my mother’s recipes for peanut brittle, gingersnaps, and ham balls.  I have my husband’s grandmother’s recipe for Danish æbleskiver, which we turn in the pan using HER mother’s steel knitting needles.  I have a handwritten note from my Korean friend for ‘BBQ’ with differing ingredients for pork and beef.  My mother-in-law has given me her recipes for bran muffins and her famous caramels.  I remember making tomato soup in the hot summer with my best friend’s family and think of her when I make it now.

Lela aged 14
husband’s grandmother Lela Rattenborg Jensen; author’s collection

IMG_1898
my kids making æbleskiver; author’s collection

What recipes do you have in your collections that have come from family and friends?  Do you know their stories and secrets?  I certainly need to document my recipe box more carefully and deliberately!

My own house history

Isn’t there a quote or saying about not doing your own jobs if you are in the business?  Like an auto mechanic letting her own car get run down, or a piano tuner with a horrible sounding piano?  I’m guilty of something like that.  I’ve never written my own house history.  Gulp.

Don’t get me wrong, I’ve done the research – in fact, that is what propelled me into starting this business.  Figuring out where to go for what records, maps, plats, deeds, pictures was part of the discovery process.  I have oodles of research on my own house, but have never gotten around to writing it up in the same format that my clients get.  Plus, I started this 15 years ago (no blogs or social media then!) and so many resources have been digitized and put online, which changes the game too.  So I’m cutting this week’s post short to actually go do my own house history report.  It would be a good thing to have, don’t you think?

17 Apr 1898
“My House”, 01 May 1898 St Louis Post Dispatch pg 37. newspapers.com.

Surf and Turf

Being the granddaughter of Minnesotan farmers and growing up in a rural community, I am familiar with the agrarian life. Familiar with slowing down for tractors towing grain laden wagons in the Fall and the beautiful sight of parallel rows of green sprouting from black fields in the Spring.  So when I started looking into another vein of my Norwegian heritage, the ones who lived on an island hugging the Arctic Circle, I was curious and intrigued as to how they lived.

My Johnsons lived in the Helgeland region, the southernmost part of North Norway.  This region is characterized by mountains with names like ‘Seven Sisters’,’Rødøy Lion’ and the ‘Dønna man’ rising up from the ocean.

Nord-norge-north-norway-Mountains-in-helgeland
Alexander Erdbeer @CC

Kristoffer Johnson and his wife Ingri Jorgensdatter, my 2nd great grandparents, lived on one such island.  How their life must have been.  Boats, nets, salt in the air, fish smell, sounds of sea birds – so different than the landlubber lifestyle to which I am accustomed!  Especially the food – I imagine they did not dine on pork chops, beef steaks and corn on the cob as I did (though maybe the mashed potatoes?).  What cycles did they observe that would correspond to the planting and harvesting seasons that a farming community depends on.  The children would have grown up playing in and around the sea instead of my backyard cornfields and creekbeds.

Kristoffer and Ingri immigrated to the United States in 1880, bringing their children Ida, Jørgen (my great grandfather George), and Ragnvald, settling in western Minnesota.  How shocking for them must the transition have been to go from coastal views to the endless plains! They adapted and survived.

I look forward to visiting Helgeland (it motivates my daily Norwegian language lessons) to learn firsthand the sights, smells, tastes, and sounds of what my ancestors experienced.  But until then, I will try to find out more about my Arctic island ancestors – maybe trying to incorporating more seafood into my diet in their honor, much to the chagrin of my meat and potato loving husband – haha!